Water

Forests

Erosion

Ocean

Land

Hawaiian Fishponds

Bare Earth

After more than a century of over-grazing, land-clearing for pineapple crops, foraging by feral animals, and poor land use management practices, the entire western half of the island has been denuded of ground cover plants and trees. From the West End of Moloka`i to the ahupua`a (land division) of Kawela, the lack of perennial vegetation means that strong winds can blow away rich topsoil and evaporate irrigation water, and that hard rains can wash tons of earth into the ocean.